Xanthelasma (from xanthe, yellow and élasma, forged metal plate), is flat or protruding above the surface of the skin of the formation is yellow, hence the name; subclassed by xanthom.
Deposits of cholesterol are most often located on the medial areas of the eyelids (closer to the nose), have a symmetrical arrangement and look like flat nodules and plaques that rise above the skin surface.
The symptom of xanthelasma has a favorable course, since it does not cause complications, pain and special discomfort. The main complaint is a cosmetic defect. Tends to increase in size, growth is rather slow.
Xanthelasma is not an independent pathology. This is a symptom that characterizes a violation of lipid metabolism. In this case, the accumulation of cholesterol occurs in the skin. To date, a link has been established between Xanthelasma syndrome and the risk of atherosclerosis.
The prevalence in the world ranges from 0.3% to 1.5%, occurs between the ages of 15 and 75 years. In women it occurs 2 times more often - 32% than in men - 17.4%.
The diagnosis is established on the basis of visual examination and by excluding other pathologies: hyperplasia of the sebaceous gland, syringoma, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, xanthogranuloma, etc. Confirmation of the diagnosis is a histological examination of the removed tissues of xanthelasma.
Relapses are frequent. After surgical removal, relapse occurs in 40% of patients. The larger the lesion volume and the larger the number of eyelids involved, the higher the risk of recurrence, with recurrence in 26% of cases observed in the first year after removal procedures.
Diet restriction and pharmacological lowering of serum lipids, although important in the treatment of increased blood lipids, gives only a limited response in the treatment of xanthelasma.
The main method is surgical treatment. The procedure takes place under local anesthesia and consists in removing cholesterol deposits. Removal can be performed surgically using cryodestruction or laser removal.
Xanthelasma laser removal is the most precise technique, which gives fewer complications in the form of scarring. Modern lasers have ultra-precise scanners that accurately remove cholesterol deposits layer by layer. At Venus Clinic we use this method.
Read more: Xanthelasma laser removal.