Acne (acne) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Excess sebum and dead cells of the stratum corneum are the main provocateurs of acne. Blockage of the hair follicles leads to a favorable environment for the reproduction of bacteria in the sebaceous gland. Therefore, acne is considered as a disease of the sebaceous glands.
How does acne appear?
Since acne is an inflammatory skin disease, its main manifestation is acne.
Depending on the type of acne and the stage of inflammation, acne may look like:
- papules - red pimples without content;
- pustule - an inflammatory element with contents (pustules).
Comedones: white and black dots on the face
Rashes can occur on the face and on the body. Non-inflammatory elements of oily skin include open and closed comedones.
- Black dots on the skin are open comedones
- They are sebum oxidized by atmospheric oxygen. This is the norm for oily skin. Open comedones are found in the so-called T-zone (forehead and nose), where the largest number of sebaceous glands is located. Open comedones are a purely aesthetic problem, since the outflow of fat from the glands is not disturbed and without inflammation.
- Closed comedones
- These are white dots on the skin without redness (inflammation). This is an accumulation of sebum in the sebaceous gland that cannot come to the surface. Therefore, closed comedones are an indication for facial cleansing.
Puberty is the starting point for acne. This is due to hormonal changes in the body and the predominance of male sex hormones. However, acne rashes can also occur at an older age - acne tarda.
There are many questions that help to deal with such an inflammatory skin disease in detail - causes, symptoms, acne treatment. To eliminate this disease, it is important to understand what caused it, how to treat it and, for example, which peel to choose for acne, how to care for skin after treatment. We will tell you more about everything now.
The main cause of acne is a change in hormonal levels with a predominance of the activity of the male sex hormone testosterone. Rarely is there an absolute increase in the hormone, which can be detected with the help of tests. Most often, this is the relative predominance of testosterone over female sex hormones, which is not detected in the laboratory, that is, the tests are normal.
Male sex hormones increase the production of sebum and its density, but this is not the reason for the appearance of rashes. The difficulty in the outflow of sebum from the sebaceous gland to the surface of the skin is the starting point in the appearance of rashes. The accumulation of cells in the mouths of the sebaceous glands and an increase in the density of fat, makes it difficult to outflow. Sebum begins to accumulate in the sebaceous gland. The difficulty of air access in the “clogged” sebaceous gland creates favorable conditions for the reproduction of P. acne bacteria. This leads to the formation of inflammatory acne elements.
Provoking factors related to diet, lifestyle and skin care patterns can lead to exacerbations and the appearance of rashes. Thus, acne rashes result from:
- impaired lipid metabolism (metabolism)
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract
- Incorrect cosmetics and/or skin care
- Hormonal disorders
- hyperkeratosis (thickening of the stratum corneum)
- genetic predisposition to acne
Diet errors and acne
It's interesting that diet and acne are also linked. Often the cause of acne is malnutrition, namely, the predominance of dairy products and sugar in the diet.
Diet won't cure acne, but eating a balanced diet will make it easier to deal with the problem of breakouts and consolidate the long-term positive result of treatment.
How to identify: acne diagnostics
Diagnosis and choice of treatment tactics for acne is based on clinical data. Based on the results of the diagnosis and the severity of acne, the doctor chooses the tactics of treatment. Identifying the underlying causes of acne breakouts will allow you to choose the right treatment, so it's best to consult a specialist rather than experiment with the treatment yourself.
"Acne" on the face or body in the form of acne rashes (pustules, tubercles, comedones) are diagnosed on the basis of:
- the amount and presence of inflammation in pimples;
- studying the menstrual cycle and identifying its violation (signs of hyperandrogenism, etc.);
- test results (testosterone levels, various other hormones, glucose sensitivity test, etc.)
- presence or absence of endocrine diseases (thyroid, amenorrhea, obesity, etc.)
- expert consultation of a gynecologist, endocrinologist and, if necessary, other specialists
What are the degrees of acne
There are 4 severity levels of acne. The severity of acne determines the tactics of treatment and the choice of treatment methods.
- Grade I (mild)
- Characterized by the presence of open and closed comedones without signs of inflammation. Periodically there are single rashes.
- Grade II (moderate)
- Inflammatory elements of acne predominate. Mostly located on the face.
- Grade III (moderately severe)
- Inflammatory elements in large quantities, nodes and cysts are formed. In addition to the face, rashes occur on the décolleté and back.
- Grade IV (severe)
- Multiple, confluent and painful nodes and pustules.
For mild acne, procedures are shown that will improve the patency of pores and restore the outflow of sebum from the sebaceous gland. These are facial cleansing, ultrasonic facial cleansing, salicylic masks, enzymatic peeling. Properly selected home care will fix the result and prevent rashes.
For acne of moderate and severe severity, combined treatment is used using local remedies and hardware methods.
Topical treatments for acne
- Jessner PCA Peel - a series of peels designed to treat acne
- Facial cleansing
- Salicylic Masks
- Retinoic Peeling
- Cosmetics for home care
Hardware methods for acne
- Acne phototherapy Forever Clear BBL is a fast and effective technique that allows you to achieve remission without medication
- Ultrasonic cleaning - removes dead cells, cleans pores
- Hydropeeling - the effect of therapeutic mild exfoliating serums
Systemic drugs such as antibiotics and systemic retinoids are prescribed for severe acne. The decision is made by the doctor.
The main goal of acne treatment is to achieve remission, that is, the absence of rashes.
Consequences of lack of treatment
Complications from untreated acne usually manifest as post-acne (scars or scars that remain after inflammatory elements on the skin), as well as uneven skin tone, sometimes pigmentation and enlarged pores.
Skin care after treatment
After achieving remission, it is very important to properly care for the skin at home.
- Cleansing ☀️🌛
- You should choose a skin cleanser that will cleanse the skin effectively enough, but not overdry it.
- Correction ☀️🌛
- Depending on the severity of acne, your cosmetologist will select corrective serums that are applied after cleansing the skin. It can be retinol, which reduces the production of sebum and the number of dead cells, improving the outflow of sebum. Salicylic acid or benzoyl peroxide for profuse skin pustules.
- Moisture ☀️🌛
- Moisturizing is an essential step in skin care. A moisturizer for acne should be light in texture and non-comedogenic.
- Protection ☀️
- Ultraviolet rays in the spring-summer period are a starting point and lead to an exacerbation of acne. Therefore, it is important to use light-based sunscreens designed for oily and problematic skin.
The main mistakes when choosing cosmetics for acne
- ℹ️ Savings on cleanser and cleanser
- The right remedy is 50% of acne treatment! Often attention is focused on the choice of a corrective therapeutic agent, but if the cleanser is not chosen correctly, then this can negate all the results of the treatment.
- ℹ️ Save money on moisturizer
- This is the second critical error. As a rule, after a visit to a beautician, we continue to use the same moisturizer as before. It is possible that it was it or its absence that caused the rashes and the visit to the beautician. The lack of proper hydration forces our skin to take care of hydration itself, which leads to increased sebum production and aggravation of acne.
- ℹ️ Alcohol-containing toners
- Alcohol cleanses the skin of fats well - that's right. But sebum lipids are essential to protect our skin's surface from dryness and excess moisture loss. The lack of skin lipids leads to increased synthesis of sebum and acne exacerbations.
Follow the recommendations of experts and your skin will be clear and radiant!